Passage 1
A Close look at the facts relating to political interference in administration shows that it is not a one-way process. There is often a nexus between power hungry and corrupt politicians and civil servants with convenient principles. Many civil servants are only too anxious to oblige the politicians, and then cash the obligation when they need some special favour. So the attitude of self-righteousness adopted by the civil service is sometimes only a way of covering their own flaws by blaming others.
Every now and then some retired civil servants come out with his memoirs, painting a glorious picture of the heights of administrative efficiency reached during his reign. There is often the suggestion that had there not been so much political interference, things would have been even more fantastic. It is not unusual for the self styled hero to blame not only interfering politicians but also fellow civil servants who are idiots or crooks, for his failures. This attitude of smug self-satisfaction is, unfortunately, developed during the years of service. Self preservation rather than service is encouraged by our whole system of rules and procedures.
The remedy has to be drastic and quickly effective. The over protection now granted to civil servants must end. Today to remove an erring civil servant is just not possible. And the only thing that the highest authority in the Government, both in the State and at the Centre, can do is to transfer an official from one job to another. The rules for taking disciplinary action are so complicated that, in the end, the defaulting civil servants gets away, and gets his full emoluments even for the period of the disciplinary proceedings, thus making it a paid holiday for him.
The result is that the administration has become rule-oriented and not result-oriented. Action is possible against the official who takes some interest in his work, but no action is ever taken against a person who does not deliever the goods. If the country is to adopt a result-oriented approach, it is necessary to link job performance with job retention.
 1. The facts relating to the problem of political interference indicate that:
    (a) honest bureaucrats are always being troubled by politicians.
    (b) politicians are often misled and trapped by civil servants.
    (c) politicians and civil servants co-operate to gain mutual advantages.
    (d) politicians and civil servants use interference as an excuse for victimising the common man.
 2. The attitude of self-righteousness adopted by the civil service, according to the writer:
    (a) is not welcomed and supported by politicians.
    (b) is dishonest and conceals the facts.
    (C) is very difficult to maintain because of opposition.
    (d) does not really help the public get fair treatment.
3.  Civil servants who write their memoirs after retiring:
    (a) claim that they would have achieved outstanding success if interference had not come in the way.
    (b) prove that constant political interference made it impossible for them to do anything properly.
    (c) complain that the credit for their achievements goes to dishonest politicians.
    (d) prove that people of inferior quality in the civil service bring about interference.
4. The existing system of administration seems to encourage civil servants:
    (a) to become self-styled heroes and boss over others.
    (b) to present a glorious picture of the administration.
    (c) to become self-centred and concerned mainly about their own gain.
    (d) to become self-righteous and fight back against corrupt politicians.
 5. The problem with the present set-up needing urgent action is:
    (a) a lack of accountability on the part of civil servants.
    (b) a lack of control over the power of politicians.
    (c) a neglect of the ideals of self-righteousness.
    (d) complicated rules and procedures that greatly reduce efficiency.
 6. The main principle of the remedy proposed by the writer is, that:
    (a) the politicians should be made accountable for all their decisions.
    (b) the high level of protection enjoyed by civil servants should be reduced.
    (c) the common man’s right to efficient and fair administration must be protected.
    (d) rules should be simplified so that there is less scope for misuse.
7. According to existing procedures, if a civil servant is found to be unsuitable or dishonest:
    (a) he can appeal to an authority like the Supreme Court.
    (b) politicians with whom he has special links will interfere to help him.
    (c) transfering him to another post is the usual action taken.
    (d) a conflict between Central Government and State Government interests can arise.
8. The writer refers to a paid holiday to support his argument that:
    (a) civil servants get a lot of extra benefits.
    (b) disciplinary action is generally not quick or effective.
    (c) lazy and inefficient bureaucrats seem to be on holiday even when on duty.
    (d) special postings that favoured civil servants are necessary and wasteful.
9. The expression linking job performance with job retention refers to a policy in which:
    (a) selection to civil service jobs is on the basis of rigorous performance tests.
    (b) selection to civil service jobs is on the basis of rigorous performance and not a minister’s opinion is the basis of transfer or promotion.
    (c) retention of good government servants by discouraging their going to private companies.
    (d) continuation in service will depend on satisfactory performance.
10. The expression deliver the goods means:
    (a) show good job performance
    (b) accept bribes or other illegal favours.
    (c) make payments of black money as bribes.
    (d) successfully defend oneself against a charge, in a disciplinary inquiry.

Directions: Some of the sentences are gramatically correct and some are incorrect. Find out which part of the sentence has an error and mark that part. If there is no error, mark that part as your answer.
11. Another baffling change1/ that I notice in him now-a-days2/ is that he avoids to speak to me.3/ No error4
12. He lay the watch on the table1/ and then forgot all about it2/ when he went out.3/ No error4
13. While it is apparent1/ that biotechnology offers significant benefits2/ adequate attention has not been focussed to this vital area.3/ No error4
14. There is a need1/ to revising Government policies2/ on controlling unauthorized constructions.3/ No error4 
15. If you had seen1/ yesterday’s cricket I am sure2/ would have enjoyed seeing our team bat.3/ No error/4

 1. Ans (c)  
 2  Ans (b) 
 3. Ans (a)  
 4. Ans (c) 
 5. Ans (a)  
 6. Ans (b)  
 7. Ans (c)  
 8. Ans (b)  
 9. Ans (d)  
 10.Ans (a)
 11 Ans (c) 
 12 Ans (a)
 13 Ans (c)
 14 Ans (b)  
 15 Ans (e)